Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
В статье рассматриваются ряд проблем в психолингвистике, затрагивающих области, смежные с культурологией и национальной психологией. В частности, общим положением является утверждение, что расхождения в языковых картинах мира обусловлены не только структурой языка, но и различным видением мира носителями этого языка. Психолингвистика рассматривается как исследования, ориентированная на философские аспекты языкознания и психологии. К их числу относятся работы по проблемам взаимодействия языка и мышления; языка и сознания; по проблемам становления человеческого сознания в онтогенезе и в филогенезе.

Ключевые слова:
соотношение языка, межкультурная коммуникация, инокультурные тексты, ценностно-ориентационная деятельность, духовная ценность, культурологическое направление
Psychology is a science that studies the patterns of development of the psyche and mental activity of an individual or a group of people. Until the XIX century, psychology as a science developed quite poorly, among researchers there was a common opinion that the subject of studying psychology is the human soul.The popularization of psychology began with the fact that a number of physiologists and physicists began to conduct research that was based on careful collection and analysis of experimental data. Thus, at the beginning of the XIX century there was not yet a single specialized textbook on psychology, but already in 1883 a complete systematic course was created by German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin [1]. At the beginning of the XX century, many schools were formed, each of which sought to explain various psychological phenomena. Among the most popular trends in psychology that emerged in the last century, we can call psychoanalysis, logotherapy, humanistic psychology, gestalt psychology, cognitivism, functionalism and behaviorism. Modern psychology is a diversified science; each of the branches is an independently developing direction. They are conditionally divided into fundamental (general) and applied (special) sciences. The first group aims to study mental phenomena and is the basis that unites all branches of psychology, acting as the basis for their development. Applied branches have a practical purpose - they are represented by social psychology, clinical psychology, legal psychology, sports psychology and so on. Linguistics (from Latin lingua - “tongue, speech, and language”) is a science that studies the language in all its manifestations, the natural language as a whole and the languages of the world in particular. Linguists of different epochs see the connection of linguistics with other humanities, such as sociology, psychology, ethnology, philosophy. Nevertheless, linguistics is an independent science, having its own subject and object, which studies a lot of questions related to languages and their speakers. There are a large number of philosophical concepts of "human". In sociology and psychology there are some different points of view on "human" and attempts to more or less detailed description of various properties and qualities of it. All this knowledge cannot satisfy pedagogy and, during correlation with each other, they do not withstand mutual criticism. Analysis and classification of these concepts and points of view, as well as an explanation of why they do not and cannot provide knowledge that satisfies pedagogy, is a matter of special and very extensive research. The object of science is the totality of individual objects that it studies. The subject of science is an abstract system of objects or a system of abstract objects. The subject of linguistics is the system of language tools used in communication. The subject of psycholinguistics is different from that of linguistics. It does not consider the device of the sign system, but the process of creating and perceiving the signs of language in the consciousness of their carriers. Psycholinguistics on an object coincides with linguistics, and on the subject and methods - with a psychology that studies the generation, functioning and structure of mental reflection of reality. Even within psycholinguistics there are different approaches to speech activity. Thus, N.Chomsky’s transformation-generative grammar suggests that a person constructs speech according to the rules of combinatorics [2]. Within the framework of behaviorism, speech is analyzed in the paradigm "stimulus-reaction". The theory of activity comes from the speaker's activity. No model is complete and does not exhaust all the properties of the object. There are several definitions of psycholinguistics. One of them is: psycholinguistics is a science that studies the processes of speech formation, as well as the perception and formation of speech in their correlation with the system of language [3]. In this definition, it is noted that psycholinguistics has three subject areas: 1) production of speech (in an individual speech act); 2) perception of speech (in an individual speech act); 3) formation of speech (in the process of becoming a child's personality). And in each case it is assumed that psycholinguistics refers to those aspects of these types of speech activity that are conditioned by the system of language. A different definition was given by Charles Osgood: "Psycholinguistics studies those processes in which the intentions of the speakers are transformed into signals of the accepted code in a given culture and these signals are transformed into interpretations of listeners" [4]. In other words, psycholinguistics deals with the processes of coding and decoding, since they correlate the state of messages with the state of participants in communication. With such an approach, the subject of psycholinguistics can be the processes of production and perception of speech in their correlation with the physiological and mental state of participants in communication. Here the processes of speech do not relate to the system of language, but to the person, to his psyche. Since at present both these approaches seem to coexist, A.A.Leontiev offers a compromise definition of this discipline. The subject of psycholinguistics, in his opinion, is the correlation of the individual with the structure and functions of speech activity, on the one hand, and language as the main component of the image of the human world, on the other [5]. Within the framework of psycholinguistics, there are studies focused on the philosophical aspects of linguistics and psychology. These include works on the problems of interaction of language and thinking; language and consciousness; on the problems of the formation of human consciousness in ontogeny and in phylogeny (the Paris Society in 1865 banned consideration of any hypotheses about the origin of the language as "useless" and "unproductive"); in general, the problems of the sign of thinking. In psycholinguistics there are a number of problems affecting areas that are adjacent to culturology and national psychology. In particular, the general position is the assertion that the discrepancies in linguistic world pictures are caused not only by the structure of the language, but also by the different vision of the world by the speakers of this language. National-cultural features of communication are manifested in at least two aspects. Firstly, these are the relationship of language, thinking, memory, communication, and in general, the place of language in different types of human activity. Secondly, these are the processes and means of communication that have a national specificity. At the junction of psycholinguistics and ethnopsychology there is the problem of studying the speech behavior of different peoples. In particular, observations show that the northern nations - for example, Norwegians, Swedes, Finns - speak quietly and less emotionally than the southern - in particular, Spaniards and Italians. Many southern peoples - Georgians, Gypsies, Turks, Arabs, tall ethnic groups of the Negroid race - mostly speak louder than Italians and Spaniards. Some eastern peoples - Japanese, Vietnamese, Burmese, and Hindus - communicate quietly. Here, probably, along with other factors, an important role is played by the place of residence and the climatic conditions associated with it.However, the neighboring countries, living at the same geographical latitude, - Germans, French, and English - speak in different ways too, from the point of view of loudness [6]. Within the cultural direction in psycholinguistics there are works devoted to intercultural communication. Intercultural communication is the communication of representatives of different peoples among themselves. An example of such studies may be works on the study of how a recipient of one culture understands the texts created within another culture. Such texts can be called other cultural texts. Value-orientated activity is not an external evaluation, preference and choice of finished values, but the process of their formation in the structure of the subject. External evaluation activity is, of course, included as an auxiliary in this independent creative process of creating values, or rather, recreating again and again by each person, each generation of its hierarchy the universal and spiritual values and corresponding levels of culture. This spontaneous, but, ultimately, conscious process of changing value priorities is the internal mechanism for revaluing values. Values, as we have seen, cannot be imposed and taken away by force or cunning, they cannot be bought, sold and even presented in ready-made form. It is impossible to enter them like a new apartment, put on like a new suit, use like bread and water. It is impossible to simply join the values; they must be created independently, created in oneself and recreated every time in each value situation anew, overcoming the alienation of weakness, cowardice and disbelief. Values of love, faith and courage, goodness and justice function only in the process of independent and free creation by human and society. Value orientations are a component of a person's orientation. These are material and spiritual values shared and internally accepted by it, predisposition to perceive the conditions of life and activity in their subjective significance. Value orientations serve as supportive devices for decision-making and for regulating behavior. The subjective preference for certain values is the beginning of the definition of the hierarchy of value orientations: family, wealth, creativity, career, honor, conscience, health, intimate relations, concern for others, etc. Consistency of value orientations is an indicator of the stability of the individual. In the system of value orientations of each person there are changes, there is a dynamics and development. The determinants of value orientations of the individual are the conditions of life, activity, as well as the propensities, abilities, interests, and human needs.
Список литературы

1. Психология. Учебник для гуманитарных вузов / Под общей редакцией В. Н. Дружинина. - СПб.: Питер, 2001. - С. 12. - 656 с. - (Серия «Учебник нового века»).

2. Chomsky N. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin and Use / N. Chomsky. - NY, 1986.

3. Залевская А.А. Введение в психолингвистику / А.А. Залевская. - М., 1999. - 120 с.

4. Osgood C.E. The Measurement of Meaning / C.E. Osgood et al. - 1957.

5. Леонтьев А.А. Языковое сознание и образ мира / А.А. Леонтьев // Язык и сознание: парадоксальная рациональность. - М., 1993. - С. 16-21.

6. Фрумкина Р. М. «Психолингвистика». - М., 2001.

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